Ray Optics/Lens

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Light is a type of energy that allows us to see the items around us. Optics is the branch of physics that studies the nature, properties, sources, and effects of light. Optics can be divided into physical optics and ray optics. Ray optics is the study of the geometry of light. Light always travels in a straight path, and the ray of light is the direction in which the light rays propagate.

Reflection and Refraction

The phenomenon of reflection occurs when light travelling through one medium collides with the surface of another medium and returns to the first medium according to the laws of reflection. Reflection is based on the laws of reflection. The laws of reflection are as follows. The incident ray, reflected ray, and normal to the surface at the point of incidence are all in the same plane. The angle of incidence and the angle of reflection will be equal.

Refraction of light is the phenomenon in which the speed of light changes as it passes from one medium to another, resulting in the bending of a ray of light travelling from one medium to another. The laws of refraction are as follows. At the point of incidence, the incident ray, refracted ray, and normal to the refracting surface are all in the same plane. The ratio of the sine of the angle of incidence to the sine of the angle of refraction is always a constant for a given set of media and a particular wavelength of light. This is referred to as Snell’s law.

Spherical Mirrors

A spherical mirror is a section of a reflecting sphere. The spherical mirror works on the basis of reflection from ray optics. Convex and concave mirrors are the two most common forms of mirrors. The spherical mirrors reflecting the surface will be curved inwards or outwards. A concave mirror has its reflecting surface curved inwards, and a convex mirror has the reflecting surface curved outwards.


The most common optical device is the lens. If the distance between the two refracting surfaces is minimal, the lens is referred to as a thin lens. There are two types of lenses: convex and concave. The convex lens is also known as the converging lens, whereas the concave lens is known as the diverging lens. The centre of the convex lens is thicker, while the edges are thinner. The centre of the concave lens is thinner, while the edges are thicker.

Lenses are employed in telescopes and other magnifying devices because of their magnifying properties. They are used to collect light rays and are used in cameras.

A concave lens is one that has at least one side curved inwards. A biconcave lens is a concave lens with both sides curved inward. Concave lenses are diverging lenses, which means that light rays refracted through them are spread apart. A lens with an outward curve is known as a convex lens. In contrast to a concave lens, the thickness of a convex lens is greater at the centre than at the edges.

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